пятница, 5 июля 2013 г.

The Dialectic of the architectural civilization

The format of the article: Architectural essay.
The article was published in the magazine "Architecture and Time" in 3.2013.

Alexander Davidovich Kvasha

Abstract.

The modern concept of "dialectics" and "Civilization." The law of civilization. Architecture massive objects - the basis of civilization. Subjective and objective laws of the development of architectural civilization. Modern architectural object category. The era of pitched-box civilization. The era of world civilization. Vanishing era of civilization. Background and objectives of architectural eras. World Energy eras. Key indicators of world civilization. The process of development, prosperity and decline of world energy. Disadvantages of the official version of the history of architecture. The priority research topics in the field of architecture and urban planning.

Keywords.

Civilization, The dialectic of civilization, forecast the development of civilization, the era of box-pitched, and the vanishing world of civilization, Background and objectives of the development of architecture eras, civilizations Energy, World Energy.


 "In order to understand the modern architecture
 need to know the dialectic of civilization "
The architecture is developed according to certain laws. Her story is proof of that. If we compare the architecture mass objects (hereinafter architecture mass) at the time of ancient primitive to industrial settlements housing, the differences between the principal and essential. This raises questions on which law develops massive architecture? Which will it be? What awaits us in the future?

The concept of "civilization» («civilization») appeared in the form of a term in France in the mid-18th century. Time of occurrence and the authorship of the term is still not completely defined. This is due to the fact that their family members on the root of the word «civilisation», «civiliser» and «civilisé» (French) were used at that time for a long time. Because of its popularity in the cultural and academic circles, the term quickly spread to Europe and finally emerged as a concept in the late 18th century, [5, 6].

At the initial stage of the French Enlightenment philosophers called civilized society based on the principles of reason and justice. In the 18th century, the concept of "civilization" as a culture, in opposition to savagery and barbarism. In the 19th century it was used as a characteristic of the concept of capitalism. Danilevsky applied this concept in his theory of cultural history, and is attached to this notion of the individual and self-contained. The concept Spengler civilization was treated as the final stage of development of any culture. The classics of Marxism on the basis of the laws of civilization justified the need to transition to a communist society. Believing that communism is the highest level of civilization [7, 8, 9, 10, 11].

At the present stage of disagreement over the meaning and application of the concept of "civilization" has yet to subside. So wide range of application. The common sense notion in all its definitions at all times is the fact that it's still a subjective assessment of the stage of development of society. That subjectivity of the assessment is the universal sign (communication) in all definitions of this concept in the past, present and future. In this case, we can come to an agreement and trying on a definition of this concept: Civilization is a subjective evaluation of the objective level of social development at a given historical period. 

The above definition is valid for all civilizations at all stages of development in the past, present and future tense. But this definition is to respect the principles of continuous development, the demands of modern philosophical definition.

At present, almost all countries of the world, anyway, are united in the international community (UN, UNESCO, WTO, etc.). Actually exist and operate other world organizations on financial, legal, environmental and other areas. With the further unification of the world into a single community, the notion of "world civilization." Thus, the modern definition of the concept can already be interpreted as follows: "Civilization is a subjective evaluation of the objective level of development of Mankind in a given historical period of time." 

The concept of "dialectic" is derived from ancient Greek philosophy. The original meaning of it was staged in finding the truth in the argument of participants with different views. Over time, the world was changing. Along with him was changing the meaning of the term. Currently, the following main stages in the development of this concept [12, 13]:
• the teaching of ancient and classical thinkers on the method of searching for truth in dispute and judgment (Heraclitus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle);
• idealist dialectics of classical German philosophy (Kant, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel);
• materialist dialectic (Marx, Engels [14], VG Belinsky, Herzen, Chernyshevsky [15]);
• dialectics of development (Lenin) [9].

Subjective evaluation of the objective reflects the changing world of that time and of the civilization in which it is given. From this point of view, the term "dialectic" is no exception. If we analyze from the point of view of today all the landmark value of the specified term, then it can be concluded that the changes tend to, from simple to more complex judgments about the development of the doctrine of the world. At the last stage of Lenin described as a dialectic theory of development, since it is based on interdependent, comprehensive and seamless connection of all aspects of any phenomenon and laws of development [9].

The dialectics of the latest more modern definition is based on the principle and the three laws of development [4, 14]:
• The principle of the universal connection of phenomena;
• The law of unity and struggle of opposites;
• The law of transformation of quantity into quality;
• Law of the negation of the negation.

By analogy with the known stages of increasing scientific approach to phenomena and processes (opinion, idea, hypothesis, theory and science), we can assume that the term "dialectic", breaking the long way of the change was not just the teaching and the science of global development.

The modern definition of the term "dialectic" stems from the principle of the universal connection of phenomena and laws of the development of civilizations, "Dialectics is the science of the development of civilization." When the concept of "world civilization" - "Dialectic is the science of the development of mankind."

The purpose of architecture alone, but everyone understands and creates it in its own way because of their skill, experience and talent. Moreover, as the creators of the objects were and are representatives of virtually all segments of the population. The desire of all human beings without exception to equip yourself and your life (in other words, to create their own architecture) is a major subjective component of the development of architecture.

Objectively, on the development of architecture influenced by the presence or absence of certain resources for life support, the use of certain building materials, the use of a technique and technology. At different stages of this effect corresponds to their level of energy and logistics development. Over time, this man-made influence naturally increases as the construction and operation of more and more complicated. Often unconventional and iconic objects of architecture at this stage of civilization can not be realized in practice or save as monuments. That is why the ideas and architectural objects have their own historical dates of "birth", the museum's archive, or "death."

Subjective and objective of the influence on the architecture of massive objects testify to its dialectical nature of the development. Here we have the dialectic as the science of knowledge in the development of architecture.

Mass architecture all over the historical process of development has been and will be the science of cognition acceptable and possible ways to design, construction and operation of the mass of objects built environments for the existence and survival of the people in a changing world.

Mass architecture as civilization, depends on the energy sector. A striking example of such a relationship can serve as a transition from a traditional peasant's hut to modern houses. In the first case, used for heating wood-burning stove in the second - the heating system on diesel or gas. Architecture of the house while dramatically changing, as an opportunity to improve housing. Home heating with solar energy needs curvilinear architecture. For life in extreme climatic conditions needs its own protected architectural environment. For space and ocean communities need is likely to own mobile architecture.

At present, these statements do not yet have explicit confirmation. It requires research and higher material-technical and technological level. But it is already existing architectural environment at the prevailing form of mass objects can be divided into a pitched-box-like, curved, secretive and mobile.

In the Renaissance, it was believed that strength, utility and beauty are sufficient categories of architecture. [3] Currently this is not enough. Architecture currently affects almost all areas of life. In the design, construction and operation of the now necessary to consider the social, health and environmental comfort, quality of construction materials, art and technology, the availability of life support resources. Hence, the main categories of architecture are the following object properties:
The idea - the aesthetics, function and organization;
The material and technical level - the reliability and durability;
Effective - and cost-efficiency;
Comfort - a social, health, biological and environmental sides of architectural space.

Proceeding from the above-mentioned concepts, patterns of development and modern categories, you can make a picture and forecast of the global architecture of civilization in the past, the present and the future in the form of a graphical table (see izografiku in Fig. 1). Architectural civilization passes three eras of development:
 The era of pitched-box-like architectures from 8000 years BC BC. to 1945 years BC (A generalized view of the origin and development of the world civilization in the world to build a nuclear power and the international community - the United Nations);
 Age of curvilinear architecture from 1945 BC. e. (Prediction of formation and flourishing of world civilization);
 The era of vanishing architectural civilization (forecast extinction and the collapse of world civilization).

Every age has its time periods of development, characterized by its objective prerequisites for the mass of architectural forms and has its own specific development objectives.
 The era of pitched-box architecture has the following stages of development [4]: ​​the period of the ancient world, the ancient and medieval period and the industrial period.
 Age of curvilinear architecture has a transitional period (rational architecture) and the period of the curved (smooth) architecture;
 The era of fading architectural civilization has the following stages of development: the period of installation and port entrances, underground shelters and structures, mobile settlements, as well as the period of the disappearing architectural environment.

Each era is characterized by the main indicators of world civilization: the population of the Earth, arrays of architectural forms, climatic conditions (in particular, the daily fluctuations in air temperature).

On the example of the process of change of the unit of mass of the object architecture in time can be pictorially show the architectural dialectic of civilization.

Energy on a global scale has its own process of development, prosperity and decline. It can be represented as a graph of energy resources and indicates the main sources of energy and showing world events.

The era of pitched-box-like architectures.

The main architectural environment of the people of the past era (buildings and houses), as a rule, had pitched-box-like shape. Hence the name of the era. Architecture of a bygone era and had the following specific objective prerequisites:
 rational division of the territory of large urban settlements in the rectangular plots of land with an extensive network of streets;
 rational layout of the house at the border of the plot, centered under the agricultural activities;
 dense deployment of houses along the streets in order to save urban land;
 Organization comfortable interior box-like forms;
 the most affordable way to drain rainfall from the roof slopes;
 maximum use of forms, types and quality of building materials.

The main tasks of the traditional architecture of the mass emergence and development carried out against the background of the struggle for survival on earth. Skip to the next epoch of the Sovereign and the flourish of civilization, that somehow have already begun to integrate into the global civilization (globalization).

The previous era of constant struggle of empires, however, set itself the task of humanity following the world - land reclamation and recovery of energy and material-technical level of Civilizations:
 account of features of the culture and traditions of the population at a given location;
 account climatic and environmental conditions specified areas;
 giving the objects of social, service and production functions;
 political, economic, technical and technological feasibility of the formation of architectural forms;
 creation of mobile and fixed architecture of the ocean and in space;

In the industrial period of pitched-box era (1800-1945 gg.), People began to build a hydroelectric power plant, to produce oil and gas. Demand for hydrocarbons has steadily increased. Industry and Transport switched from steam engines to cars with internal combustion engines. Arose nuclear power. The world's population has increased. There are big cities and metropolitan areas. Globally, the constantly growing level of consumption of the energy produced. Price of energy increased. There was a ghost shortage of natural energy resources.

Forecast of development of the era curvilinear architecture.

Post-industrial period (present) era curvilinear architecture in its capabilities can be considered as the golden sunset pitched-box architecture. You can still build palaces, castles, cottages and houses with magnificent architecture and luxurious design of interior space. You can still experiment and compete in the construction of the iconic objects to imitate the classics of the past era and the dream of a villa on the Cote d'Azur near the equator. You can still have this luxury.

However, the time inevitably brings the era of curvilinear architecture. First the simplest objects of that era (Dome House) has already appeared on earth, and every year they become more and more, and their construction has become an industrial [5, 6, 7, 8].

In my prediction transitional period lasting approximately 150-200 years is characterized by an evolutionary transition from a traditional to a curvilinear architecture. In this period, along with traditional objects, there will be a rational architecture of the house, that is, it is not curved in shape objects, but not objects of pitched-box architecture. By the end of rational objects gradually give way to objects curvilinear architecture.

By the end of the transition period will include oil and gas resources in the area of ​​the total deficit. This will give a boost to the intense transition to mass curved architectural environment. The cost of maintaining such an environment are reduced considerably.

In this era of nuclear power will disappear and there will be fusion energy for the distillate. By the end of the era of the use of water from the atmosphere as a source of raw materials for fusion energy will lead to significant climatic changes on Earth. People will start to actively use renewable energy sources.

In the era of curvilinear architecture will grow mobile array architecture. With this array of people in the future will solve the specific problems of human survival in extreme environments on Earth, and explore the Universe. By the end of most of the population will have to live in a mobile built environment.

The main prerequisites curvilinear architecture are:
 lack of natural energy resources;
 environmental degradation of habitat;
 the need to reduce energy costs for the built environment;
 need for environmentally friendly and cost-effective transportation;
 need for both mobile and fixed settlements in the ocean and space.

The main tasks of the era of curvilinear architecture are:
 energy efficiency of architectural forms of the shortage of natural energy resources;
 maximum autonomy of the mass of objects of architecture in significant savings for the operation;
 creation of the necessary conditions for the creation of architectural space in a deteriorating ecology of habitats;
 minimizing resource costs for construction and operation;
 urban search and functional aesthetics of the future of cities and settlements;
 search aesthetics, rectilinear, curvilinear forms of media, and mobile architectures;
 creation of mobile and fixed architecture in the ocean and in space;

Forecast of development of the architectural era of extinction of civilization.

The next era of the forecast can be described as an era of fading architectural civilization. This period can be divided into two periods. The first - the period of installation and input ports in underground shelters and facilities, as well as mobile architecture. The second - the period of the disappearing architectural environment.

In the first period, the era of fading people will still receive energy from fusion energy for the distillate, but its impact on the earth's climate would be catastrophic: hurricanes, tsunamis, earthquakes and extreme diurnal temperature variations. Fusion energy due to the destruction of the economy will gradually decline and disappear. The world's population will decline sharply over the period.

In the second period the era of fading people will use only natural sources of energy: solar, wind, water current, tides and geoteplo. Due to climatic shocks in the past, the Earth's population to fall to a critical point of no return. By the end of the renewable natural energy sources as useless will decline and disappear.
In an era of fading architectural civilization, people will learn to use the energy of wandering space. This will give impetus to the creation of a mobile architecture in the form of interplanetary space colonies, as well as transport of interplanetary travel.

The main prerequisites for the period of installation and port entrances, underground shelters and structures, mobile architecture are:
 extreme climatic conditions for survival on earth;
 mass exodus to the underground dwellings;
 the need to improve transport;
 need to understand the oceans and outer space;

The main tasks of the period of installation and port entrances, underground shelters and structures, mobile architecture are:
 ensuring conditions for the establishment of an acceptable architectural space;
 full autonomy of architectural space;
 providing affordable and interplanetary transportation;
 the further development of the oceans and outer space;

The main purpose of the next period, the era of fading is the problem of survival at any cost. Architecture while not critical. 

From the author:
 Articles from the TSB have censorship arising from the prevailing at the time of the communist ideology. Therefore, as a supplement, used dictionary Wikipedia. 
Forecast of development of architectural eras of civilizations in the article are his own philosophical point of view of the author. It is based on a "parallel" world, which created a science fiction world, and on the scientific logic of historical events. This point of view is still a scientific idea. To become a hypothesis, it needs to be scientifically proven. 

The history of architecture is well past era, and is described in detail in textbooks, where the focus is mainly on culture, aesthetics, urban planning, design, iconic objects, policies, trends and styles in the historical development of different civilizations. To a lesser extent disclosed massive architecture, economics, construction, building construction, farming, etc. Thus, by the little known moments of the official version of the history of architecture are:
 investigation of the laws of the mass of underlying architecture of energy, material and technical proficiency;
 study patterns of development of architecture from the mass demographic and climatic conditions for the existence of civilization;
 absence of any psychological, biological and ecological aspects of the mass of architecture;
 lack of predictable prospects of mass architecture.

Not having full scientific research in these fields stories of mass architecture, it is impossible to study it as the science of the existence and survival of the people in the world now and in the future.

Currently, the architecture is not only a work of art, but also the logistical tool for the development of civilization. Empowering its leadership role is inevitable. This is due to the dialectical nature of its development. Only examining the dialectic of civilization, the architect can count on a major role in the process of making architecture in a rapidly changing world.

The contradictions between the dialectics of architecture, on the one hand, and the conservative nature of its expression in the architectural community, on the other hand, there is the main reason for reducing the role of architecture and its carriers in the process of creation. Architect basically knows aesthetics, function and organization of the object, but does not know how to still provide the reliability, durability, cost and energy efficiency. But still it is necessary to create a space of social, psychological, health, biological and environmental comfort. In practice, often the last three categories of object architecture more relevant than the first.

It should also be noted. Now in articles and dissertations on architecture and town planning is dominated mainly aesthetic and constructive ideas or actual problems of local importance. They lack the problematic topic of mass of the architectural environment. Very often, to make the topics pseudo novelty and innovation, unnecessarily using foreign terms and the words, "vague" incomprehensible and meaningless phrases, links to many foreign architectural "authorities." This stagnation in science happens in the transition period when the new has not yet realized and have to reconsider the legacy of the past, or look for a "milestone" in the hope to find there something innovative.

Today, to make demands of low-rise architecture and energy efficiency, rational policies in urban planning, for which research is needed on the following topics:
 effect of life support resources to objects of mass architecture (available habitat with maximum autonomy and minimal operating costs);
 providing social, psychological, health, biological and environmental comfort of architectural space (habitat quality);
 creation of curvilinear architecture aesthetics and architecture of mobile and stationary objects ocean and space;
 mobile architectural objects in the transport infrastructure (research opportunities life support when moving on the ground and in space).
It is in these topics upcoming studies can reveal the dialectic of the future architecture of civilization.

List of Figures.

Fig. 1 The development of architectural civilization in the past, present and future.

Attribution illustrations.

Author of the picture is the author of this article.
Figure includes images from the Internet, with free access for non-commercial use.

Bibliography and sources of the Internet.

1. Wikipedia "Civilization"
2. Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE), "Civilization".
3. Lewis Morgan, "Ancient Society" in 1877.
4. Friedrich Engels, "The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State." 1884.
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6. Wikipedia "Dualism"
7. Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) "Dualism".
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23. URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bq-F8Wm2OSw
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